On this day on 19th September

On this day in 1486 Elizabeth of York gave birth to a son, Prince Arthur. He therefore became the heir to Henry VII and was baptized on 24th September in Winchester Cathedral. In August 1497, Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were formally betrothed at the ancient palace of Woodstock . On 27th March 1502, Arthur fell seriously ill. Based on the description of symptoms by his servants, he appeared to have been suffering from a bronchial or pulmonary condition, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis or some virulent form of influenza. He died on Saturday, 2nd April, 1502.

Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon
Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon

On this day in 1841 Charles Poulett Thomson died.  Thomson was a supporter of parliamentary reform, he became Manchester's first Member of Parliament in 1832. Appointed Governor-General of Canada in 1839, he was was created Lord Sydenham in August 1840.

Charles Poulett Thomson
Charles Poulett Thomson

On this day in 1863 General Braxton Bragg and his troops attacked union armies led by George H. Thomas and William Rosecrans at Chickamauga. Thomas was able to hold firm but Rosecrans and his men fled to Chattanooga. Bragg followed and was attempting to starve Rosecrans out when union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant, Joseph Hooker and William Sherman arrived. Bragg was now forced to retreat and did not stop until he reached Dalton, Georgia.

Battle of Chickamauga
Battle of Chickamauga

On this day in 1893 New Zealand becomes the first country to grant all women the right to vote. This gives encouragement to those in the UK who have been fighting for many years for women's suffrage.

New Zealand gives the vote to women.
New Zealand gives the vote to women.

On this day in 1900 the Wild Bunch (Butch Cassidy, Sundance Kid, William Carver, Ben Kilpatrick and Henry Logan, held up the San Miguel Valley Bank that netted $32,640.

Left to right: Henry Longbaugh (Sundance Kid), William Carver,Ben Kilpatrick, Henry Logan and Robert Parker (Butch Cassidy)
Left to right: Henry Longbaugh (Sundance Kid), William Carver,
Ben Kilpatrick
, Henry Logan and Robert Parker (Butch Cassidy)

On this day in 1909 Ferdinand Ferber was killed when he crashed his plane at Boulogne. In 1899 Ferber began producing gliders. He  continued to experiment and in 1904 Ferber built a biplane glider with a fixed tail. This was an important innovation and solved most of the problems associated with glider flight.

Ferber, Aéroplane No. 9
Ferber, Aéroplane No. 9

On this day in 1923 Ernst Toller had his play "Hinkemann," premiered in Leipzig. Toller, a refugee from Nazi Germany committed suicide on 22nd May 1939. According to the The New York Times: "Ernst Toller, exiled German writer and lecturer, committed suicide yesterday, hanging himself by a bathrobe cord in his apartment in the Mayflower Hotel, Sixty-first Street and Central Park West. He was 46 years old.... Friends said he had undertaken no new writing but was casting about for further material. They attributed much of his depression to the gloomy view he had to take recently of events in Europe and the threat that he saw in the extension of totalitarianism to the American continent."

Ernst Toller (c. 1935)
Ernst Toller (c. 1935)

On this day in 1934 Bruno Hauptmann was arrested for kidnapping and killing Charles Lindbergh Jr., son of aviator Charles Lindbergh. Hauptmann, a German-born carpenter, was executed for the crime on 3rd April, 1936. Lindbergh and his wife were devastated by this event and decided to move to Europe in December 1935 in order to "seek a safe, secluded residence away from the tremendous public hysteria".

Police photographs of Bruno Hauptmann
Police photographs of Bruno Hauptmann

On this day in 1939 British Expeditionary Force reaches France. The BEF took up defensive positions along the Franco-Belgian frontier. Under the command of General John Gort, the force included four regular infantry divisions and 50 light tanks.

General John Gort
General John Gort

On this day in 1940 Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz in order to smuggle out information and start a resistance. In 1942 Pilecki discovered that new windowless concrete huts were being built with nozzles in their ceilings. Soon afterwards he heard that that prisoners were being herded into these huts and that the nozzles were being used to feed cyanide gas into the building. Afterwards the bodies were taken to the building next door where they were cremated. Pilecki got this information to the Tajna Armia Polska who passed it onto the British foreign office. This information was then passed on to the governments of other Allied countries. However, most people who saw the reports refused to believe them and dismissed the stories as attempts by the Poles to manipulate the military strategy of the Allies.

Witold Pilecki
Witold Pilecki

On this day in 1941 the first meeting of partisan leaders Josip Broz (Tito) and Draza Mihailovic took place in Yugoslavia. The Allies provided military aid to Tito and Mihailovic. However, Mihailovic was a traditional monarchist whereas Tito was a communist and it was not long before the two armies were fighting each other.

Josip Broz (Tito) and Draza Mihailovic
Josip Broz (Tito) and Draza Mihailovic

On this day in 1941 the German Army captured Kiev in the Soviet Union as part of Operation Barbarossa. General Walter Warlimont issued an order to all military commanders in the German Army about the occupation of the Soviet Union: (i) Political officials and leaders are to be liquidated. (ii) Insofar as they are captured by the troops, an officer with authority to impose disciplinary punishment decides whether the given individual must be liquidated. For such a decision the fact suffices that he is a political official. (iii) Political leaders in the troops (Red Army) are not recognized as prisoners of war and are to be liquidated at the latest in the prisoner-of-war transit camps.

The execution of Masha Bruskina and Volodia Shcherbatsevich.
The execution of Masha Bruskina and Volodia Shcherbatsevich.

On this day in 1941 Nazi government forced German Jews, and over to wear Jewish stars. By the end of 1941 over 500,000 Jews in Poland and Russia had been killed by the Schutz Staffeinel (SS). At the Wannsee Conference held in January 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Heinrich Muller, Adolf Eichmann and Roland Friesler discussed what became known as the Final Solution. It was eventually decided to make the extermination of the Jews a systematically organized operation. After this date extermination camps were established in the east that had the capacity to kill large numbers including Belzec (15,000 a day), Sobibor (20,000), Treblinka (25,000) and Majdanek (25,000).

German Jews
German Jews

On this day in 1943 Alexander Petrovich Apsit died. A talented artist after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 Apsit was commissioned by the State Publishing House to design revolutionary posters. The Year of Proletarian Dictatorship was produced in October, 1918, for the first anniversary of the revolution. It shows the key elements of the revolutionary poster's imagery: a farmer with a red flag and scythe in the foreground, and a blacksmith with a hammer crushing the emblems of fallen capitalism - both as guards in front of a field of simple flags in the background an industrialized city and a rising sun.

Ivan Vladimirov, Revolutionary workmen and soldiers robbing a wine-shop (1917)
Alexander Petrovich Apsit, The Year of Proletarian dictatorship (1918)

On this day in 1944 Guy Gibson flew his De Havilland Mosquito as master bomber in a raid on Rheydt. He never arrived home and later it was discovered that Gibson and his navigator, James Warwick, had been killed when the plane crashed in the Netherlands. Gibson was awarded the Victoria Cross after being the Commanding Officer of No. 617 Squadron, which he led in the Dam Busters raid in 1943, resulting in the breaching of two large dams in the Ruhr area of Germany.

William Joyce
Guy Gibson

On this day in 1945 Lord Haw Haw (William Joyce) sentenced to death in London. In court it was stated that although he was United States citizen he had held a British passport during the early stages of the war. It was therefore argued by Hartley Shawcross that Joyce had committed treason by broadcasting for Germany between September 1939 and July 1940, when he officially became a German citizen. William Joyce was executed on 3rd January 1946.

William Joyce
William Joyce

On this day in 1952 the United States stopped Charlie Chaplin from re-entering the country after a trip to England. Chaplin, a prominent anti-fascist pointed out in his autobiography: "My prodigious sin was, and still is, being a non-conformist. Although I am not a Communist I refused to fall in line by hating them."

Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin

On this day in 1957 George Whitelaw died. He was a successful cartoonist who worked for Punch Magazine and the The Daily Herald

George Whitelaw, Round the Clock (1943)
George Whitelaw, Round the Clock (1943)

On this day in 1995 Rudolph Peierls died in Oxford. A Jewish nuclear physicist working in Nazi Germany he fled to England in 1934.  In 1940 Peierls wrote a paper that explained how a uranium fission bomb could become a weapon that could win the Second World War. In 1943 Peierls joined the Manhattan Project. In the United States. Over the next two years he worked with Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, Otto Frisch, Felix Bloch, Enrico Fermi, David Bohm, James Chadwick, James Franck, Emilio Segre, Eugene Wigner, Leo Szilard and Klaus Fuchs in developing the atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Rudolph Peierls
Rudolph Peierls