On this day on 18th September

On this day in 1544 King Henry VIII's troops occupy Boulogne. During his absence Henry appointed his wife Catherine Parr as regent-general.

Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr by William Scrots (c. 1547)

On this day in 1811 the British East India Company force led by Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound conquered Java, part of the Dutch East Indies.

Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound
Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound

On this day in 1838 the Anti-Corn Law League was established in Great Britain. The economic depression of 1840-1842 increased membership of the Anti-Corn Law League and Richard Cobden and John Bright spoke to very large audiences all over the country.

National Anti-Corn Law League
National Anti-Corn Law League

On this day in 1851 the first issue of The New York Daily Times was published (2 cents a copy). The main objective of the newspaper was to report the news in a restrained and objective fashion. It enjoyed early success by appealing to a cultured, intellectual readership instead of a mass audience.

New York Daily Times
New York Daily Times

On this day in 1864 General John Bell Hood's began his Tennessee campaign (also called The Franklin–Nashville Campaign), in the American Civil War.

General John Bell Hood
General John Bell Hood

On this day in 1895 Booker T. Washington delivers 'Atlanta Compromise' address. Washington's conservative views made him popular with white politicians who were keen that he should become the new leader of the African American population.

Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington

On this day in 1897 Leslie Morshead was born in Ballarat Victoria, Australia. During the Second World War he was given command of the Australian Imperial Forces and took part in the famous victory at El Alamein.

Leslie Morshead
Leslie Morshead

On this day in 1898 Lord Kitchener's ships reach Fashoda, in an attempt to reconquer the Sudan.

Lord Kitchener
Lord Kitchener

On this day in 1901 Harry Naujoks was born in Hamburg. A leading figure in the German Communist Party he spent over ten years in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen concentration camp

On this day in 1905 Franchot Tone was born. By the late 1930s he was one of Hollywood's leading actors. However, because of his left-wing views he was a victim of McCarthyism and had difficulty making films in Hollywood during the 1950s.

Franchot Tone
Franchot Tone

On this day in 1911 the Russian minister Peter Stolypin was shot in the Kiev Opera House. Stolypin died from his injuries on 18th September 1911. He was the sixth Minister of the Interior in a row to be assassinated.

Peter Stolypin
Peter Stolypin

On this day in 1911 Dmitri Bogrov, shot Peter Stolypin, the Russian Minister of the Interior. He was a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party but had been spying on his colleagues on behalf of Okhrana, the secret police and had carried out the assassination as an act of remorse.

Dmitri Bogrov assassinating Peter Stolypin on 18th September, 1911
Dmitri Bogrov assassinating Peter Stolypin on 18th September, 1911

On this day in 1914 the Battle of Aisne ends with Germans beating French during the First World War.

First Battle of Aisne
First Battle of Aisne

On this day in 1914 General Paul von Hindenburg named commander of German armies on the Eastern Front.

General Paul von Hindenburg
General Paul von Hindenburg

On this day in 1931 Adolf Hitler has a heated argument with his niece Geli Raubal. The following day she is found dead. Officially she has committed suicide, but Hitler is accused of killing her.

Geli Raubal
Geli Raubal and Adolf Hitler

On this day in 1939, William Joyce ("Lord Haw-Haw") made his first Nazi propaganda radio broadcast. Joyce was found guilty of treason and was executed on 3rd January 1946.

William Joyce
William Joyce captured in May 1945

On this day in 1940, 19 German aircraft shot down above England during the Battle of Britain.

Messerschmitt Bf 109E-1
Messerschmitt Bf109

On this day in 1947 the Central Intelligence Agency officially comes into existence after being established by President Harry S. Truman in July.

Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman

On this day in 1961 Dag Hammarskjold is killed in an airplane crash in the Congo Republic.

Dag Hammarskjold
Dag Hammarskjold

On this day in 1976 the funeral of Mao Zedong takes place in Beijing.

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong