Montenegro had been fighting for its independence from Turkey for over 600 years. In 1912 Montenegro joined with Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria in a war with Turkey. This Balkan War helped to reinforce Montenegro's independence from Turkey.
By 1914 Montenegro had a population of about half a million. Most of its 15,000 square kilometres was mountainous. Although fairly small, the Montenegrin Army contained experienced guerrilla fighters and would be a useful ally if war broke out in Europe.