The Muscogee tribe lived in Georgia, Alabama and Florida. British traders gave them the name Creeks as a result of a large number of tribal villages by the Ocmulgee River.

In the War of 1812 some of the Creeks supported the British. On 27th March, 1814, an American Army led by General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Stocks Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Alabama. The surviving Creeks were moved to new lands in Indian Territory.

In 1832 the Muscogee reached an agreement over tribal lands in Alabama. This led to hostility to the new settlers and this led to the Creek War (1835-36). It is estimated that over 10,000 members of the tribe were killed during this war. Another 5,000 were killed during the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.

A rebellion led by Chitto Harjo took place in 1909. Creeks complained that frauds were depriving them of land and resources. This was the last major Native American uprising in the United States.

Primary Sources

(1) Frances Roe, letter (September, 1880)

There is a large village of Cree Indians in the valley below, and for several days they were a great nuisance in the garrison. One bright morning it was discovered that a long line of them had left their tepees and were coming in this direction. They were riding single file, of course, and were chanting and beating "tom-toms" in a way to make one's blood feel frozen. I was out on one of the little hills at the time, riding Bettie, and happened to be about the first to see them. I started for the post at once at a fast gait and told Faye and Colonel Palmer about them, but as soon as it was seen that they were actually coming to the post, I rode out again about as fast as I had come in, and went to a bit of high ground where I could command a view of the camp, and at the same time be screened by bushes and rocks. And there I remained until those savages were well on their way back to their own village.

Then I went in, and was laughed at by everyone, and assured by some that I had missed a wonderful sight. The Crees are Canadian Indians and are here for a hunt, by permission of both governments. They and the Sioux are very hostile to each other; therefore when four or five Sioux swooped down upon them a few days ago and drove off twenty of their ponies, the Crees were frantic. It was an insult not to be put up with, so some of their best young warriors were sent after them. They recaptured the ponies and killed one Sioux.

Now an Indian is shrewd and wily! The Sioux had been a thief, therefore the Crees cut off his right hand, fastened it to a long pole with the fingers pointing up, and with much fuss and feathers - particularly feathers - brought it to the "White Chief," to show him that the good, brave Crees had killed one of the white man's enemies! The leading Indian carried the pole with the hand, and almost everyone of those that followed carried something also - pieces of flags, or old tin pans or buckets, upon which they beat with sticks, making horrible noises. Each Indian was chanting in a sing-song, mournful way. They were dressed most fancifully; some with red coats, probably discarded by the Canadian police, and Faye said that almost everyone had on quantities of beads and feathers.

Bringing the hand of a dead Sioux was only an Indian's way of begging for something to eat, and this Colonel Palmer understood, so great tin cups of hot coffee and boxes of hard-tack were served to them. Then they danced and danced, and to me it looked as though they intended to dance the rest of their lives right on that one spot. But when they saw that any amount of furious dancing would not boil more coffee, they stopped, and finally started back to their village.