Typhus arrived in Europe in 1489 with soldiers who had been fighting in Cyprus. The disease is transmitted to humans by mites, lice and fleas. Symptoms include fever and red spots over arms, back and chest. An outbreak in 1557-59 killed about 10% of the English population. Typhus mainly killed poor people living in places where sanitary conditions were very bad. It was also a common disease in prisons and for this reason typhus was also known as gaol fever. The typhoid bacillus was first identified in 1880 and can now be successfully treated with antibiotics.