Arthur Robinson was born in Pickerington, Fairfield County, Ohio, on 12th March, 1881. Robinson studied at Ohio Northern University, Indiana Law School and the University of Chicago. After being admitted to the bar in 1910 Robinson worked as a lawyer in Indianapolis.
A member of the Republican Party, Robinson was elected to the Senate on 2nd November, 1926, where he served as chairman of the Committee on Pensions (70th to 72nd Congress).
An unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1934, Robinson returned to Indianapolis where he worked as a lawyer. Arthur Robinson died on 17th March, 1961.