James Scott, the illegitimate son of Charles II and Lucy Walter was born in 1649. The king arranged for his son to be brought up by Lord Crofts.
James was created Duke of Monmouth in 1663. Soon afterwards he married the rich heiress, Ann, Countess of Buccleuch. He became involved in the Rye House Plot and was forced to flee the country.
Just before he died in February 1685, Charles II admitted that he was a Catholic. He also announced that his brother James was to succeed him to the throne. Monmouth believed he should be king and in June 1685, he landed in England with 4,000 troops.
As he was a Protestant he expected most of the population to support his claim to the throne, but people in England were unwilling to get involved in another Civil War. Monmouth was easily defeated by the king's army at Sedgemoor. He was captured and beheaded in 1685.