Appian was born in Alexandria ( Egypt) in about AD 95. After working as a government official in Alexandria, he was transferred to Rome where he held an important post in the imperial treasury. His major work is the History of the Roman Conquests. Of the original twenty-four volumes only nine survived. Appian died in about AD 165.

Primary Sources

(1) In his book History of the Roman Conquests Appian described how Scipio Aemilianus, the Roman military commander, reacted to the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC.

Scipio looked over the city which had flourished for over seven hundred years since its formation, which had ruled over such extensive territories, islands, and seas, and been as rich in arms, fleets, elephants, and money as the greatest empires... It had withstood a great siege and famine for three years, and was now coming to an end in total destruction; and he is said to have wept and openly mourned the fate of his enemy. After reflecting a long time on the fact that not only individuals but cities, nations, and empires must all come to an end he said... "This is a glorious moment... and yet I am seized with fear and foreboding that some day the same fate will befall my own country."

(2) Appian, The Civil Wars (c. AD 160)

Antony was amazed at Cleopatra's wit as well as hwe good looks, and became her captive as though he was a young man.

(3) Appian, The Civil Wars (c. AD 160)

Laena (under instructions from Antony) cut off Cicero's head... He also cut off the hand with which Cicero had written his attacks on Antony... The head and hand of Cicero were suspended for a long time from the rostra in the forum where formerly he had made speeches.