Question: Why did Otto Dix's paintings cause great controversy in the 1920s in Germany. Why did Adolf Hitler insist that Dix should be sacked as professor at the Dresden School of Arts and Crafts in 1934?
Question: In the 19th century upper class and middle class women were not expected to earn their own living. Women rarely had careers and most professions refused entry to women. In the middle of the 19th century it was virtually impossible for women to become doctors, engineers, architects, accountants or bankers. After a long struggle the medical profession allowed women to become doctors. Even so, by 1900 there were only 200 women doctors. It was not until 1910 that women were allowed to become accountants and bankers. However, there were still no women diplomats, barristers or judges. How does this cartoon attempt to persuade its readers that women did not make good dentists? It will help you to read this article on Careers and Women.
Question: On 5th March, 1942, the Daily Mirror published a cartoon on the government's decision to increase the price of petrol. Philip Zec said the purpose of the cartoon was to make people aware that every drop of petrol was precious. Zec was trying to say that lives were being lost bringing tankers to Britain and that wastage was thus immoral." Winston Churchill was furious that the cartoon had been published and Herbert Morrison, the Home Secretary, called it a "wicked cartoon". The government even considered prosecuting Zec under 1940 Defence Regulation 2A ("If, with intent to assist the enemy, any person does any act which is likely to assist the enemy or to prejudice the public safety, the defence of the realm or the efficient prosecution of the war, he shall be liable to penal servitude for life.") Why do you think the government was so hostile to Zec's cartoon? Why did they eventually decide not to prosecute Philip Zec and the Daily Mirror?
Question: Lewis Hine was an American school teacher. Hine was critical of the country's child labour laws. Although some states had enacted legislation designed to protect young workers, there were no national laws dealing with this problem. In 1908 the National Child Labour Committee employed Hine as their staff investigator and photographer. This resulted in two books on the subject, Child Labour in the Carolinas (1909) and Day Laborers Before Their Time (1909). Hine travelled the country taking pictures of children working in factories. In one 12 month period he covered over 12,000 miles. Unlike the photographers who worked for Thomas Barnardo, Hine made no attempt to exaggerate the poverty of these young people. Hine's critics claimed that his pictures were not "shocking enough". However, Hine argued that people were more likely to join the campaign against child labour if they felt the photographs accurately captured the reality of the situation. Do you agree with Hine or his critics?
Question: Why would the Freedom Riders have had their photograph taken before their journey on 4th May, 1961? Why did President John F. Kennedy and Attorney General Robert Kennedy try to persuade them not to take this journey?
Question: Is George Cruikshank a supporter or opponent of parliamentary reform?
Question: Is this a British, German, French or Russian interpretation of military alliances in 1914?
Question: In July, 1917, it was claimed by the authorities that cartoons by Boardman Robinson published in The Masses had violated the Espionage Act. Why do you think the authorities did not like this cartoon?
Question: Will Dyson cartoon (Peace and Future Cannon Fodder) is about the contents of the Versailles Treaty and shows the four most influential politicians at the Paris Peace Conference: Georges Clemenceau (France) David Lloyd George (Britain), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), and Woodrow Wilson (United States). Tiger is Clemenceau. What is the meaning of this cartoon. What is the significance of the words "1940 class".
Question: What does the photograph tell us about the Ku Klux Klan?
Question: Christine de Pizan commissioned an artist, Anastasia, to illustrate her books. What does this tell us about Christine de Pizan?
Question: Compare the drawing by Alfred Pearse (A Patriot) above with other illustrations found on the page Women's Hunger Strikes. Explain the different ways that the artists attempt to influence the opinions of the viewer.
Question: Describe the work these women are doing. Why do you think two of these women have their heads covered?
Question: Describe what is taking place in the painting.
Question: David Low's cartoon shows Lord Rothermere as a nanny giving a Nazi salute and saying "we need men of action such as they have in Italy and Germany who are leading their countries triumphantly out of the slump... blah... blah... blah... blah." Lord Beaverbrook, the owner of the Evening Standard, refused to allow the original cartoon to be published. Low was forced to make the nanny unrecgnisable as Rothermere and had to change the name on her dress from the Daily Mail to the Daily Shirt. Why would Beaverbrook protect Rothermere from Low's satire?
Question: Ivan Alexeyevich Vladimirov was a member of the Petrograd militia in 1917. In his spare-time he created a series of paintings about life in the city. Explain, with careful reference to the painting above whether you agree with the statement that: "Paintings are not as useful to an historian as photographs".
Question: What comment is the artist making about the Chartist petition? It will help you to read Chartist Petitions.
Question: What is taking place in the picture?
Question: (a) Why were dunghills more of a problem in the summer than the winter? (b) Explain why dunghills were responsible for a considerable amount of disease. (c) Give reasons why many British streets had dunghills in the first-half of the 19th century. Which one of these reasons is the most important?
For other questions on this subject see: Propaganda Campaign against Adolf Hitler