After the war Reichwein he studied history and philosophy at the University of Frankfurt. A member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), Reichwein was personal adviser to the secretary of cultural affairs (1927-30) and helped to introduce educational reforms in Germany.
Reichwein became a teacher at the University of Halle but was dismissed after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. He joined the German resistance but along with his fellow comrade, Julius Leber, was arrested by the Gestapo in July, 1944.
Adolf Reichwein was found guilty of treason and executed on 20th October, 1944.