Carlo Sforza was born in Montignoso, Italy in 1873. He entered the diplomatic service and after the First World War became foreign minister under Giovanni Giolitti. In 1921 Sforza upset right-wing forces by signing the Rapallo Treaty which returned the important port of Fiume to Yugoslavia.
Sforza was ambassador to France but resigned from office when Benito Mussolini gained power in 1922. He led the anti-fascist opposition in the Senate until being forced into exile in 1926. While living in exile Sforza published the books, European Dictatorships and Contemporary Italy.
After Italy surrendered in September 1943, Sforza returned to his country and in June 1944 he accepted the offer of Invanoe Bonomi to join his provisional antifascist government. Carlo Sforza died in 1952.