Hans Scholl, the son of Robert Scholl, the mayor of Forchtenberg, was born on 22nd September, 1918. Hans studied at the secondary school in Kunzelsau before the family moved to Ulm in 1932.
In 1933 Scholl joined the Hitler Youth. At first he was enthusiastic but, influenced by the views of his father, he became increasingly critical of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi government. In 1937 Scholl was arrested and briefly jailed after being accused of subversive activities.
After leaving school Scholl was forced to join the German Labour Service before entering the German Army. In the spring of 1939 he was allowed to begin his medical studies at the University of Munich. While at university he became interested in philosophy and was greatly influenced by one of his teachers, Kurt Huber.
In the summer of 1940 Scholl was sent as a member of the medical corps that went with the German Army invading France. Later than year he returned to Munich where he joined with Sophie Scholl, Inge Scholl, Christoph Probst, Kurt Huber, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf and Jugen Wittenstein to form the White Rose. The group decided to adopt the strategy of passive resistance that was being used by students fighting against racial discrimination in the United States. This included publishing leaflets calling for the restoration of democracy and social justice.
In June, 1942, Scholl, was called up as a medic during Operation Barbarossa. Scholl was accompanied by three fellow students from the University of Munich, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf and Jugen Wittenstein. While on duty Scholl and his friends witnessed Jews being murdered by the Schutz Staffeinel (SS) in Poland and the Soviet Union.
When Scholl returned to Germany in October, 1943, he and the White Rose began publishing leaflets about what he had seen while in duty. The leaflets were at first sent anonymously to people all over Germany. Taking the addresses from telephone directories, they tended to concentrate on mailing university lecturers and the owners of bars.
In Passive Resistance to National Socialism, published in 1943 the group explained the reasons why they had formed the White Rose group: "We want to try and show that everyone is in a position to contribute to the overthrow of the system. It can be done only by the cooperation of many convinced, energetic people - people who are agreed as to the means they must use. We have no great number of choices as to the means. The meaning and goal of passive resistance is to topple National Socialism, and in this struggle we must not recoil from our course, any action, whatever its nature. A victory of fascist Germany in this war would have immeasurable, frightful consequences."
The White Rose group believed that the young people of Germany had the potential to overthrow Adolf Hitler and the Nazi government. In one leaflet, Fellow Fighters in the Resistance, they wrote: "The name of Germany is dishonoured for all time if German youth does not finally rise, take revenge, smash its tormentors. Students! The German people look to us."
The White Rose group also began painting anti-Nazi slogans on the sides of houses. This included "Down With Hitler", "Hitler Mass Murderer" and "Freedom". They also painted crossed-out swastikas. Members also began leaving piles of leaflets in public places. On 18th February, Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl began distributing the sixth leaflet produced by the White Rose group. Jakob Schmidt, a member of the Nazi Party, saw them at the University of Munich, throwing leaflets from a window of the third floor into the courtyard below. He immediately told the Gestapo and they were both arrested. They were searched and the police found a handwritten draft of another leaflet. This they matched to a letter in Scholl's flat that had been signed by Christoph Probst.
The three members of the White Rose group appeared before the People's Court judge, Roland Friesler, on 20th February. Found guilty of sedition they were executed by guillotine a few hours later. Just before he was executed Hans Scholl shouted out: "Long live freedom!"