Auguste Chouteau was born in New Orleans in September, 1749. His mother formed a relationship with Pierre Liguest, and the three of them moved to Illinois County. In 1764 Chouteau helped Liguest build a fur-trading post at the junction of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Liguest named the settlement St. Louis in honour of the French king, Louis IX.
When Pierre Liguest died in 1778, Chouteau inherited his mentor's fur-trading business. He expanded the trade and became an extremely rich man. After the Louisiana Territory was sold to the United States in 1803, Chouteau was appointed one of the three justices of the territorial court. Other offices held by Chouteau included colonel of the St. Louis militia, judge of the Court of Common Pleas and president of the board of trustees of St. Louis.
In 1815 Chouteau successfully negotiated peace treaties with the Sioux, Iowa, Sauk and Fox. When Auguste Chouteau died on 24th February, 1829, he was the largest landowner in the St Louis.