Robert Farmer (1823-1859)


An engraving showing a
daguerreotypist making a portrait.(c1853)

Robert Farmer - An Early Brighton Photographer

Robert Farmer was one of the first residents of Brighton to challenge the monopoly of William Constable, who, armed with a licence from Richard Beard, had ran the only photographic portrait studio in the town from 1841 to 1851. William Constable, the proprietor of the Photographic Institution at 57 Marine Parade, had reportedly paid Beard one thousand pounds for the exclusive right to take daguerreotype portraits in Brighton. Under the terms of Beard's licence, no other photographer was permitted to use the daguerreotype process to make portraits in the town.

In July 1852, Joseph Meurant, an itinerant daguerreotype artist from France, had set up a temporary 'Daguerreotype Room' at 131/2 East Street, Brighton, where for the next eight months he took a "correct likeness" for as little as 5 shillings (25 p.). William Constable had originally charged 21 shillings (£1.05 p.) for a cased daguerreotype portrait, but a few years later he had reduced his set price to 12s 6d, " to possess himself of the patronage of the middle classes."

In an advertisement placed in the Brighton Herald, Joseph Meurant announced that he would be leaving the town on 15th March, 1853. William Constable probably breathed a sigh of relief when he heard that his only rival in the production of daguerreotype portraits was planning to move on to another town.

However, by the first week of March 1853, another photographic competitor in the form of Robert Farmer, a 30 year old chemist, had announced that he would be taking daguerreotype portraits for the remarkably low price of 2s 6d for each portrait, at his shop in North Street, Brighton.

Robert Farmer - Brighton Chemist 1852-53

Robert Farmer was born in 1823, probably in South London. A child with the same name was born to Robert and Maria Farmer on 15th February 1823 and the baby was baptised at the Church of St George the Martyr in Southwark on 25th May 1823.

Robert Farmer was a chemist by profession. Robert Farmer was not resident in Brighton at the time of the 1851 Census, but by the summer of 1852 he was working as a chemist at 59 North Street, opposite the Unicorn Inn. The shop at 59 North Street was previously occupied by William Smallcombe Passmore of Somerset, a chemist and druggist, who together with his brother John George Passmore, a surgeon, had been working in Brighton since the early 1840s.

On 29th July 1852, Robert Farmer, Chemist of 59 North Street, Brighton, announced that he was working as an "agent for Mrs H. Linsted, Professional Rubber and attendant upon persons afflicted with spinal affections (ailments) and weak joints."

Chemist at Work. A daguerreotype of 1852 [ GEORGE EASTMAN HOUSE ]

Robert Farmer carried on solely as a chemist at his shop in North Street for the next seven months. On 3rd March 1853, Robert Farmer announced in the Brighton Gazette that daguerreotype portraits would be "taken daily" at his gallery at 59 North Street. Farmer's gallery was open from ten to four o'clock. He charged between 3s 6d and 10s 6d (121/2 p - 52 1/2 p.) for a daguerreotype portrait and advised customers that a sitting would take no more than ten seconds.

Robert Farmer - A Daguerreotype Artist in 1853

Robert Farmer began taking daguerreotype portraits in the early months of 1853 and by November he was firmly established as a photographic artist in Brighton. By November 1853, his premises at 59 North Street were known as "Mr. Farmer's Daguerreotype Rooms" and one room had been specifically "designed and built expressly for the purpose of taking fine portraits in all weathers." [By February 1854, Farmer had also constructed a photographic glass house at 59 North Street]. In an advertisement in the Brighton Herald dated 26th November 1853, Robert Farmer declared proudly that he was using "Apparatus of very superior construction" to "ensure a fine portrait" in all weathers and conditions. Another advertisement mentions that Farmer was using Voigtlander's celebrated camera. (Viennese instrument maker Peter von Voigtlander (1812-1878) had introduced cameras with a Petzval lens which had been specifically designed for portraiture.)


The Voigtlander Camera


A daguerreotype portrait of
Peter von Voigtlander ( 1812-1878 ).


Daguerreotype by an unknown photographer.
Robert Farmer established himself as a daguerreotypist in Brighton by producing small and simple portraits at very low prices.




" The Photographer deprives the Artist of his Livelihood." A cartoon by Thomas Hosemann, which features Voigtlander's portrait camera(1843)



Voigtlander's early portrait camera.



Farmer's premises at 59 North Street also incorporated a picture gallery where a "collection of photographic portraits, taken plain or in colours, by competent Artists" were on display. Robert Farmer was also "exhibiting to Amateurs and Ladies and Gentlemen interested in the art, his CALOTYPE Views of the Pavilion, the Railway Terminus etc, taken by Gustave le Gray's new waxed-paper process", and "his DAGUERREOTYPE views of the Pavilion, and of the Old Church previous to its being restored". Additionally, Farmer provided "every description of apparatus" and offered lessons in the art of photography, promising to give "practical and theoretical instructions in the art."

By the end of 1853, Robert Farmer had a number of competitors, both in the supply of photographic equipment and the taking of portraits. In August 1853, Lewis Dixey, an Optician and Mathematical Instrument Maker of 21 Kings Road, Brighton was selling photographic apparatus and materials and offering to provide "every requisite for practising this most interesting art." By the beginning of 1854 Dixey was also listed as a daguerreotype artist.

William Lane of Brighton had described himself as a photographer in the national press as early as September 1852, but up until October 1853 his advertisements in local newspapers only mention the provision of photographic equipment and make no reference to making portraits by the daguerreotype process. Beard's patent on the daguerreotype process expired on 14th August 1853. In an advertisement placed in the Sussex Advertiser on 12th November 1853, William Lane offered to provide "a first class daguerreotype portrait in a handsome French case for two shillings."

In his advertisements, William Lane made the claim that his photographic depot at 213 Western Road, Brighton was "the only establishment in England where a warranted Portrait can be had for TWO SHILLINGS." In December 1853, Edward Collier, a daguerreotype artist of 58 Kings Road, declared that he was producing "the only real cheap daguerreotype portraits in Brighton" and argued that his portraits were sold "at prices so reasonable to be within the reach of all classes of the community."

Farmer responded to the claims of his rivals by reducing the price of his daguerreotype miniature portraits. In November 1853, a daguerreotype portrait in 'a neat case' would cost 1s 6d at Mr Farmer's Daguerreotype Rooms. On 19th November 1853 in the Brighton Herald, Robert Farmer was offering "a first-rate daguerreotype portrait for ONE SHILLING, including elegant case." In a space of nine months, Farmer had brought down the price of a daguerreotype portrait taken in his studio from 2s 6d to 1s.

Advertisement for Mr Farmer's Daguerreotype Rooms at 59 North Street, Brighton.The Brighton Herald 26 November 1853.

Farmer's Photographic Prints on Paper 1853-1855

Although Robert Farmer called his establishment in North Street, "Mr Farmer's Daguerreotype Rooms", he was not unfamiliar with other photographic processes. As a chemist, Farmer was probably well informed about William Henry Fox Talbot's photographic negative/positive process and Frederick Scott Archer's experiments with collodion glass negatives. By 1853, the young chemist had already employed paper negatives in the production of calotype photographs.


An early calotype of Brighton's Royal Pavilion, probably taken by William Henry Fox Talbot (c1846).


In November 1853, Farmer was advertising his calotype views of the Royal Pavilion and Brighton's Railway Station, taken by Gustave Le Gray's waxed-paper process. Le Gray had published details of his waxed paper process in December 1851. Le Gray used a thinner type of paper than Talbot and the resulting photographic prints were sharper than the grainy Talbotypes. Farmer relied on the daguerreotype process to make portraits and he continued to describe his establishment as "Farmer's Daguerreotype Portrait Rooms" up to 1855. However, during this time, Robert Farmer did use alternative photographic processes to produce views of Brighton. The daguerreotype could be taken in seconds and produced sharp detailed images and therefore was ideal for portraiture; the calotype was more suited for taking photographs of buildings and landscapes. It was more convenient to use Le Gray's paper process on the streets of Brighton to take views. A daguerreotype was unique and the process itself did not allow multiple copies. Le Gray's waxed paper negatives and Archer's collodion glass negatives could both be used to produce a large number of photographic prints. Farmer was quick to recognise the commercial potential of printing from negatives.


A coloured print from the early 1850s showing St Nicholas Church in Brighton. Between 1852 and 1853 the parish church of St Nicholas was restored and altered by Richard Cromwell Carpenter (1812-1855). In November 1853, Robert Farmer exhibited at his North Street gallery, a daguerreotype view of St Nicholas which showed " the Old Church previous to its being restored. "

View of the Railway Terminus, Brighton by Richard H Nibbs (1816-1893). Around the time this print was made in the early 1850s,Robert Farmer was exhibiting calotype views of the Railway Terminus. Farmer later published his photographic views of Brighton landmarks such as the Railway Station and St Nicholas Church, which he hoped would rival these engraved prints.

On 13th November 1855, a notice appeared in 'The Times', advertising Farmer's Photographic Printing Office at 59 North Street, Brighton. From his printing office, Farmer produced photographic prints of Brighton Beach and other views of Brighton. In his 1855 advertisement, Farmer makes it clear that his photographic views of Brighton were "permanent positives printed from glass or paper negatives, in the best manner and possessng the most brilliant tones."

A photographic view on paper showing the West Battery on Brighton's Kings Road. This early photograph was taken around 1855 when Robert Farmer was producing photographic prints of Brighton views from his premises at 59 North Street, Brighton.

Farmer sold his 'handsomely mounted' photographic views of Brighton measuring 8 inches by 6 inches (20.5cm x 15.2cm) at the rate of 24 shillings a dozen (£1.20p for 12 copies). Farmer's smaller, unmounted photographic views were considerably cheaper. For example, photographic prints of Brighton Beach, which could be pasted into scrap books or fixed in albums, were advertised at 9 shillings a dozen (45 p for 12 copies).

Family matters

We know that Robert Farmer was a family man. He married a woman named Harriot (Harriet) Lovell and the couple were the parents of at least three children.

Robert Farmer and his wife Harriet are recorded as the parents of Walter Lovell Farmer, who was baptised at Brighton's Chapel Royal on 30th August 1854. A second son, Ernest Howard Farmer, was baptised at the same chapel on 9th July 1856. In the register for these baptisms, Robert Farmer's occupation is given as 'Chemist', but when the couple's last child, Herbert Leighton Farmer was baptised on 10th February 1858, the clerk entered the father's profession as 'Artist.'

The Farmer family may have lived at Robert Farmer's business premises at 59 North Street for a time, but in Taylor's Directory of 1854, an additional address of 114, North Street is given. In 1857, Robert Farmer is recorded at 59 North Street in Brighton's Register of Electors. However, Melville's Directory of 1858 lists Robert Farmer's photographic galleries at 59 and 62 North Street, but in the street directory the residential address is recorded as 114 North Street. Living next door at 116 North Street was Mrs H Linsted, the professional rubber or masseuse, for whom Robert Farmer acted as an agent.

Of Robert Farmer's three sons, only Ernest Howard Farmer appears to have survived into adulthood. In the 1881 Census, Ernest Farmer is recorded as a 'physicist' aged 24, living at 51 Davyell Road, Lambeth. Also residing in Lambeth at the time of the 1881 Census is Harriet Farmer, a charwoman, a widow aged 64. Her place of birth is given as Walton-on-Thames, Surrey. As yet, there is no firm evidence that this Harriet Farmer was the wife of Robert Farmer.

Robert Farmer - Daguerreotype Portrait Artist 1854 -1856

In 1854, Robert Farmer was one of a dozen photographic artists taking portraits in Brighton. The majority of the photographers listed in Taylor's Directory of 1854 were daguerreotypists and although Farmer had taken photographic views using glass and paper negatives, he continued to use the daguerreotype process for portrait taking up until 1856.


Farmer's Photographic Glasshouse


Engraving showing a photographer's studio with a skylight.(c1853)



Early in 1854, Farmer built a photographic glasshouse at 59 North Street. In the previous year, Farmer had taken his daguerreotype portraits "in a room designed and built expressly for the purpose." On 7th February 1854, in the Brighton Examiner, Robert Farmer announced that his daguerreotype portraits would now be taken "in a Glasshouse, recently constructed on scientific principles, at his Old-Established Photographic Rooms, 59 North-Sreet, Brighton".


Advertisement in the Brighton Examiner publicising Farmer's Photographic Glasshouse.(7 February 1854)



Where possible, Farmer kept his prices below the rates charged by his competitors. At the General Photographic Institution, St James Street Brighton, where the photographic partnership of Grey & Hall carried on their business, "daguerreotypes warranted to last" started from 6 shillings (30 p.). James Henderson, who opened a studio in New Road, Brighton in August 1855, charged "10s 6d upwards" for a photographic portrait. In the same period, Robert Farmer charged 1s 6d (71/2p) for a small daguerreotype portrait in a plain frame.


Portrait of an old Hero

William Constable of the Original Photographic Institution wrote that he had "many sitters from the ranks that are called noble". The Brighton Gazette of 12th October 1854, reported that Hennah & Kent's Talbotype Gallery had made portraits of a number of "distinguished persons" including the Duke of Devonshire, Countess Granville, Lord Carnworth and Lady Keats. The majority of Farmer's customers must have been drawn from lower down the social scale. However, in 1854 Farmer achieved a major coup when he secured a portrait of Sir Charles Napier. As the famous British army general, Sir Charles James Napier, the conqueror of the province of Sind, had died in 1853, we must assume that the Sir Charles Napier who patronised Farmer's studio in 1854 was Vice Admiral Napier, who had recently been given command of the Baltic Fleet. In March 1854, Admiral Sir Charles Napier left Portsmouth with his fleet for the northern seas of the Baltic, where it was hoped he would influence the outcome of the Crimean War. Unfortunately for Farmer, Admiral Napier returned to Engtland in December 1854 in some disgrace for failing to attack the Russian stronghold of Kronstadt. If Napier had returned a hero, Farmer could have capitalized on Napier's patronage.



Portrait of Sir Charles Napier (1854)

Mr Farmer - A prolific and innovative Advertiser

Robert Farmer obviously believed in the effectiveness of advertising. From 1853 to 1857, Farmer advertised continuously in the local press and on the evidence available it appears he placed more newspaper advertisements than any other photographer during this period.

William Constable, the first photographer in Brighton, rarely advertised his services. Apart from his initial announcement on 9th November 1841 that his Photographic Institution was now open to the public, Constable hardly ever felt the need to advertise. In the 1840s he had no competitors and so advertising seemed unnecessary. After Prince Albert patronised his studio at 57 Marine Parade, it became fashionable to have a likeness taken at Constable's Photographic Institution. Constable wrote "the persons who have been once, come again and bring their friends". As Philippe Garner, an authority on William Constable's photographic career has noted, "Constable's reputation was established by example and word of mouth". After the newspaper advertisements in November 1841, announcing the opening of Brighton's first photographic portrait studio, Constable only resorted to advertisements in the local press when it was absolutely necessary. For example in the summer of 1854, Constable posted notices in Brighton's newspapers to inform the public that he had removed his place of business from 57 Marine Parade to 58 Kings Road. Very few other advertisements were placed by Constable over the twenty years he was in business as a photographic artist.

Hennah & Kent, another successful photographic portrait studio active at the same time as Farmer, also seemed reluctant to advertise in the local press. The firm of Hennah & Kent was held in high regard and the partnership aparently was content to let others sing their praises. The name of Hennah & Kent does appear in local newspapers, but it is usually in the editorial columns or in a journalist's review of their work. For example, on 12th October 1854, a writer in the Brighton Gazette notes that those who have visited Hennah & Kent's Talbotype Gallery at 108 Kings Road, "need not be told that here portraits are taken in the very highest style of photographic art". As long as Hennah & Kent could rely on unsolicited praise and recommendations, advertising was superfluous.

Hennah & Kent's Talbotype Gallery and William Constable's Photographic Institution were high class establishments that numbered Dukes and Countesses and other "distinguished persons" amongst their clientele and both firms probably regarded newspaper advertising as rather vulgar. Robert Farmer could not afford to take such a haughty attitude and quickly realised that his livelihood depended on regular adverts in the press.
It is fortunate for the photohistorian that Robert Farmer placed so many detailed advertisements in the local press. In the absence of letters, journals and other documents, Robert Farmer's photographic activities can only be measured by studying the material contained in his newspaper ads.

Farmer's advertisements are particularly useful in gaining information about the scale of charges adopted by daguerreotypists in the 1850s. A number of advertisements placed by Farmer in the early months of 1854 give us an idea of the range of daguerreotype portraits available to the customer :





A small daguerreotype portrait in a frame - 1s 6d [SEE ILLUSTRATION AT RIGHT]

A small daguerreotype portrait in a leather case 2s 6d


A larger size daguerreotype portrait in a frame- 3s 6d


A larger size daguerreotype portrait in a leather case - 5s 6d

Two daguerreotype portraits in one case -4s or 5s 6d


A daguerreotype portrait in an American thermo-plastic case - 7s 6d


A daguerreotype portrait in an ornamented leather case with elegant fittings and spring clasp - 10s 6d


Stereoscopic daguerreotype portrait complete with stereoscope 10s 6d


Large full length daguerreotype portraits 10s 6d or 15s




[ABOVE] Daguerreotype portrait in a simple French frame1

[ABOVE] A pair of daguerreotypes in one case.


[ABOVE ] A daguereotypeportrait of a woman in an elegant case



It must be remembered that Farmer was not a typical Brighton daguerreotypist, in that the charges he made were generally lower than the average. In 1855, when
Sussex photographers were charging from 2s 6d to 10s 6d for their cheapest daguerreotype portrait, Farmer was charging only 1s 6d. In one advertisement, Farmer makes it clear how he was able to charge so little for his daguerreotype portraits :

" Mr Farmer wants it to be understood that his portraits at 1s 6d are
equally as good in point of perfection as those of a more expensive
character, the only difference being that they are small and fitted up
in plain frames. "

1st February 1855 BRIGHTON GAZETTE



Post Mortem Daguerreotypes

In the 1840s and 1850s, it was not uncommon to make daguerreotypes of the dead. On 3rd February 1855, Robert Farmer placed the following notice in the Brighton Herald :

" R.F. informs the public and his patrons that he takes portraits of
deceased persons at moderate charges."

It is significant that Farmer mentions that his post mortem portraits were made " at moderate charges." Usually, daguerreotype portraits of the dead were far more expensive than ordinary portraits. The daguerreotypist would have to come to the subject and a visit to a family home would mean added expense for the photographer.





[ABOVE] Daguerreotype of a dead child.(c1855)

Farmer's Advertising Rhymes

In 1855, Robert Farmer began to employ rhymes in his advertising. The verses are plain and simple, but they have a certain charm and prefigure the modern advertising jingle with their straightforward rhymes:

Rambling up North Street t'other day,
I thus, unto myself did say-
"I'll have my portrait taken here,
They're good, and none can say they're dear.
So in I went, and in a trice,
They gave me this, isn't it nice?

BRIGHTON GAZETTE, 11 January 1855

Somewhat surprisingly, Farmer never ran the same poem twice, even when advertising in different newspapers. For example, two days after the above rhyme apeared in the Brighton Gazette, Farmer placed the following verse in the Brighton Herla.d

Young Edward to his brother said,
I'll have my portrait taken, Fred;
And so will I, Fair Ellen cried,
Her father's joy, her mother's pride,
We'll give them to our parents dear,
And have them taken, I know where

BRIGHTON HERALD, 13 January 1855

Occasionally the poems contain details which indicate the attributes looked for in a daguerreotype:

A good Daguerreotype, if you please,
Possess qualities like these;
Clear, sharp and well defined, and better,
A brilliant tone, true to the letter.
Good blacks and whites and, take the hint,
Mounted and coloured to a tint.

BRIGHTON GAZETTE, 18th January 1855

Another rhyme points out the advantages of a sea-side location over England's capital, where smog and pollution of the air was believed to affect the quality of photographic images.

No, London smoke and Brighton air
Will not for Photographs compare,
The reason is, the atmosphere

BRIGHTON GAZETTE, 3rd April 1856



Group Photographs

In January 1855 Farmer placed the following rhyming advertisement in a local newspaper:

A darling little child we take,
With dimple cheeks - there's no mistake;
Or two or three with mother kind,
We group them, prettily defined.
Whole families we group together,
And take them, dull or fine the weather

BRIGHTON HERALD 27th January 1855

In the 1850s, when exposure times were lengthy, making portraits of children or a group of several figures were regarded as difficult operations. In 1853, Robert Farmer advertised that the time of a sitting was ten seconds. To make a good portrait of a child or a large family group necessitated skill and patience and Robert Farmer introduced a scale of charges that reflected the additional effort required. Farmer charged 1s 6d (71/2p) for a single portrait of a man or woman, but a portrait of a child under 10 years would cost 2s 6d (121/2p), a group of three children, 7s 6d (371/2p) and the price of a portrait of a family group made up of five people was fixed at 10s 6d (521/2p)

Daguerreotype of a group of children made by an unknown photographer in the 1850s.

Robert Farmer in the Collodion Age 1856-1859

By the Spring of 1856, Robert Farmer had finally abandoned the daguerreotype and was employing a collodion 'wet plate' process based on Frederick Scott Archer's invention of 1851.

In an advertisement dated 3rd April 1856, Farmer acknowledged that he was now taking advantage of "the great improvements that have recently taken place in the Photographic Art".

The collodion 'wet plate' process was not easy to use, but it was less costly than the daguerreotype.
Farmer introduced a new scale of charges to reflect "the moderate price the best portraits can now be obtained", even "with ample renumeration to the Artist". A photographic portrait in an "elegant French case" at Farmer's Photographic Institution now cost one shilling (5 p.). Farmer's old rival, William Lane, who was operating the Verreotype Photographic Portrait Rooms in 1856, was offering a similar portrait for 1s 6d (71/2p.)

By November 1857, Robert Farmer had opened a second photographic gallery at 62 North Street, which he called his 'Model Photographic Establishment'. Apparently, Farmer was obliged to open a second gallery because of the demand from his "numerous patrons" at his original photograhic gallery at 59 North Street. The availability of a second gallery relieved pressure on the older establishment and Farmer was able to reassure his customers that "visitors are not now detained as was too often the case previous to the opening of No 62."

An Early Death

Robert Farmer had advertised regularly and extensively in the local press from 1853 to 1857. In Melville & Co's Directory of 1858, there was by Robert Farmer's standards a very basic advertisement which read simply 'FARMER'S PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS - From One Shilling to One Guinea - TAKEN DAILY AT BOTH ESTABLISHMENTS, 59 AND 62 NORTH STREET, BRIGHTON. In the Brighton Gazette of 17th March 1859 there appeared an equally brief and simple notice "DIED - On the 12th Inst at Burgess Hill, Robert Farmer, of 59 North Street, Brighton, photographic artist, aged 36 years."

It is likely that Robert Farmer would have continued to have been a central figure in the history of photography in Brighton, but for his early death on 12th March 1859. The carte de visite format, which boosted the fortunes of portrait photographers in Brighton in the 1860s. had recently been introduced into England. Given Farmer's business acumen, there is no reason to doubt that he would have exploited the commercial potential of the cdv format, which was, after all, in keeping with Farmer's aim of providing photographic portraits at the lowest price possible.

Farmer's Legacy

By 1861, Farmer's studio at 59 North Street Brighton was in the hands of William J. Collings, a 24 year old photographic artist from Camberwell. Collings' tenure at 59 North Street was brief. When Folthorp's Directory of Brighton was compiled in May 1862, the studio at 59 North Street was occupied by William Clark, a 31 year old Hampshire born photographer, who had previously worked in Winchester. William Clark remained at 59 North Street for over twenty years until 1884.

Robert Farmer was an important figure in the early history of photography in Brighton, but very few authenticated images by this pioneer photographer have survived. However, his surname is forever linked to photographic history through the contribution of his son, Ernest Howard Farmer (1856-1944) who became a 'teacher of photography' and was appointed the first Head of Photography at the Regent Street Polytechnic (now part of the University of Westminster.)

Ernest Howard Farmer
was Robert Farmer's second son. Ernest trained as a physicist, but as a young man he was experimenting with photography. In 1883, Ernest H Farmer invented a chemical method to reduce the intensity of a photographic negative. Ernest Farmer combined potassium ferricyanide with sodium thiosulphate to decrease the silver in a developed image. Ernest Farmer's formula is still used in photography today to lighten over exposed negatives or reduce the density of a black and white print. The chemical solution was given the name 'Farmer's Reducer' and so despite his early death and through the achievements of his son, the name of Farmer will be preserved in photographic history.


ABOVE LEFT ] Advertisement in Melville's 1858 Directory of Brighton in which Robert Farmer mentions both his studios in North Street, Brighton. By this time, Farmer was using the collodion process to make photographic likenesses and could offer portraits for as little as one shilling ( 5p ).



(ABOVE RIGHT)The back of a William Clark carte de visite shows Robert Farmer's original trade plate for his studio at 59 North Street, Brighton.









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