Tyrkova had wanted to become a doctor but the policies of Alexander III made this an impossibility. She joined the illegal Social Democratic Labour Party and in 1903 was arrested and charged with smuggling radical newspapers into Russia. She managed to escape and fled to Germany.
In exile Tyrkova lived with Peter Struve and his family in Stuttgart. She returned to Russia after the 1905 Revolution. Over the next few years Tyrkova became one of the most important leaders of the Women's Liberation movement in Russia.
1. Was highly critical of Nicholas II and the autocracy.
2. Wanted Russia to have universal suffrage.
3. Wanted the Russian government to allow freedom of expression and an end to political censorship of newspapers and books.
4. Thought Russia should support Serbia against the Triple Alliance.