Edward Fox junior (1823-c1899)


Edward Fox junior -

Landscape and Architectural Photographer

Edward Fox junior was exceptional amongst Brighton photographers in that he devoted himself almost exclusively to photographing landscapes and buildings.He worked as a photographer in Brighton for nearly 50 years,recording the seafront, private and public buildings, churches,the streets of the town and views of the surrounding countryside. He was among the handful of photographers active in Brighton who has achieved recognition nationally for his talents as a photographer.

(RIGHT)Although Edward Fox had been taking views and landscape photographs since 1851, he did not advertise as a professional photographer until 1862. This full page advertisement from H.& C. Treacher's Advertising Sheet of 1867 (RIGHT) details the type of photographic work Fox carried out in the 1860s.



Advertisement for Edward Fox 's Landscape Photography in Treacher's Guide of 1867

Edward Fox was the eldest son of Edward Fox senior ( born 1788, London - died 1875), an artist and landscape painter, and Sarah Fox, a milliner, (born c.1792 Horsham, Sussex, died before 1871)

The West Battery, Kings Road. An engraving taken from a drawing by Edward Fox senior (c1830)

Edward Fox senior - Landscape Artist in Brighton

Edward Fox senior, was active as an artist in Brighton before 1815. Brighton Museum & Art Gallery has a watercolour of 'Brighton Beach and Sea Front' by Edward Fox senior, which carries the date 1814. In Baxter's Directory of 1822, Edward Fox is listed as a Drawing Master at 55 Ship Street. On 12th May 1822, Edward Fox, artist, married Sarah Caven, spinster. Edward, the couple's first child was born the following year at Edward Fox's house in Ship Street, Brighton. Edward Fox junior was baptised at St Nicholas Church, Brighton on 23rd April 1823. A second son, John was born at the Fox family's new residence at 3 Brighton Place in October 1824. (The house in Brighton Place had previously belonged to the Caven family). Edward Fox senior is listed as an artist at 3 Brighton Place in Brighton street directories up until 1843. During this period, Edward Fox, senior, produced a number of paintings of Brighton and the surrounding area. He made several watercolours of Brighton Beach and distinctive Brighton buildings such as the Royal Pavilion and the famous Seawater Baths in Pool Valley. Edward Fox senior mainly worked in watercolour, but he did produce a few oil paintings on canvas. Fox's oil paintings include a View of Brighton from Race Hill and one of Market Street in the old centre of Brighton.
Market Street was close to Fox's house in Brighton Place and ran alongside Brighton's popular landmark The Lanes.

Market Street from Bartholomews by Edward Fox senior . A drawing signed and dated 1823.The old gabled building on the left marked '1727' was used as a workhouse, but because meetings were held in this building it was known as 'The Old Town Hall'.This old building was demolished soon after Edward Fox senior made this drawing. Edward Fox senior and his family lived at the top end of Market Street.

Around 1845, Edward Fox, senior, with his wife and five sons set up home at 44 Market Street, an attractive house with mathematical tiled front and bow windows, which to this day stands alongside The Pump House tavern. In Leppard's 1845 Directory of Brighton, Edward Fox, senior is listed as 'Decorative Painter and Artist' of 44 Market Street. Edward Fox junior must have shown artistic talent, for he was soon assisting his father as a decorative painter. In the 1851 Census, Edward Fox junior's father is described as 'Artist-Landscape Painter', aged 62. Mrs Fox's occupation is give as 'Milliner' and two of her sons are working as artists. Edward Fox junior is listed as a 'Decorative Painter' aged 28 and his 22 year old brother Charles Fox is described as a sculptor. In an 1852 Directory, Edward Fox of 44 Market Street Brighton is listed as a "Transparent Blind Maker."

44 Market Street and the adjoining Pump House Tavern. When this photograph was taken in the early 1950s, No 44 was occupied by J. S. North, Bookbinder. The Fox family lived at 44 Market Street from about 1845.Edward Fox junior worked from this building as a photographer for nearly 50 years.


Edward Fox junior as a Photographer (1851-1861)

Edward Fox junior is first listed as a professional photographer in the Professions and Trades Section of Folthorp's 1862 Directory for Brighton, yet there is evidence that by this date he had been taking photographs for over ten years. An advertisement for Edward Fox's 'Landscape Photography' published in the Brighton Examiner of 1867, states he was established as a photographer at 44 Market Street in 1851. A later advertisement which appeared in Page's 1885 Directory included the statement "Edward Fox has given his whole attention to Out-Door Photography since 1851." It is highly likely that a photograph of the neighbouring shops at Nos 42 and 43 Market Street, dating from around 1851, was taken by Edward Fox junior. [ see illustration in The History of Photography in Brighton section of this website ].

A town guide, published by H & C Treacher in 1867, carried a full page advertisement under the heading 'LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY - MR. EDWARD FOX, ARTIST, - 44, MARKET STREET, BRIGHTON' in which the photographer gave details of his 'Local Views & Stereoscopic Slides', including an item with the title "King's Road, with the Comet of 1858." On the 29th October 1860, The Brighton Art Society held a 'Conversazione' at the Royal Pavilion, which featured an exhibition of " works of art, photography and objects of interest." A review of the exhibition which appeared in a Brighton newspaper later that week, singled out for praise the photographic work of the artist "Mr E. Fox - whose landscapes were excellent."

When the Census was taken on 7th April 1861, the unmarried 38 year old Edward Fox junior was still living with his parents at 44 Market Street. Edward Fox senior, the Head of the Household, is described as an "Artist, Painter" aged 73. Edward Fox junior gave his occupation as "Artist, Designer & Photographer." All the other sons had left the family home, but Edward's younger brother, John Fox, a "commission agent", was visiting his parents at the time of the census.

Edward Fox senior carried on as a landscape artist up until his death in 1875. At the Brighton Art Exhibition of 1861, the 73 year old painter showed three sketches, including one called "Waiting for the Boat." In Brighton Directory listings, Edward Fox senior continued to advertise his services under the name of Edward Fox and Son, Artists, at 44 Market Street up until 1874, the year before his death. No doubt, Edward Fox junior assisted his elderly father with decorative art projects in the 1860s and early 1870s, but advertisements indicate that his main occupation during this period was as a Landscape and Architectural Photographer.

Hodson's Black Mill on West Hill Road, Brighton, photographed by Edward Fox on 25 June 1866,the day of the mill's demolition

Edward Fox junior- Landscape and Architectural Photographer (1862-1874)

In Folthorp's General Directory for Brighton, Hove & Cliftonville, which had been corrected to May 1862, eighteen professional photographic studios are listed. Nearly all the photographic artists listed specialised in portrait work. Of all the photographers listed, only Edward Fox junior described himself purely and simply as a landscape photographer. Every single advertisement placed by Edward Fox was headed with the words 'Landscape Photography.' The texts of these advertisements detailed the type of work that Fox the photographer carried out - "Private Photographic Views, Monuments, Copies of Sculpture, Interiors, Architecture, Copying, and Instantaneous Portraits of Animals, Groups etc taken in Brighton or the Country." Unlike all the other Brighton photographers of this time. Fox never offers to take a studio portrait of an individual person. It appears that the only portrait he is prepared to take is that of a favourite or prized animal. People are only taken as part of a large group outside of the studio. In addition to his private commissions taken in Brighton and the surrounding countryside , Fox offered for sale "Local Views & Stereoscopic Slides", with titles such "The Chain Pier During a Gale" and "The Chain Pier by Moonlight." In an 1867 advertisement, which appeared in the 'Brighton Examiner' newspaper, Edward Fox of 44 Market Street, Brighton advised readers that "Fox's local views, panorama of Brighton etc." could be purchased from "principal stationers."


Stereocard of Brighton's Royal Pavilion by Edward Fox (c1865)

In the 1860s and early 1870s, the majority of Brighton's photographic studios relied on the production of carte de visite portraits. In contrast, Edward Fox's cartes de visite featured the interiors and exteriors of Sussex Churches and other important local buildings.

Carte de visite views by Edward Fox. [ABOVE] Preston Church near Brighton [BELOW] Hove Church , Sussex (c1870)

Edward Fox's blind stamp identified him as a "Landscape and Architectural Photographer." Several Brighton photographers in the 1860s and 1870s took views as well as portraits.W H Mason junior issued his photographs of famous Brighton landmarks, such as the Grand Hotel, in carte de visite format, but he rarely ventured out of town. The Brighton photographer George Cassinello, produced cartes that featured famous Sussex buildings and William Lane of Queens' Road,Brighton photographed a number of views of the Swiss Gardens at Shoreham, but these photographers relied on portraits for the bulk of their business. Charles Nathaniel Wootton, who arrived in Brighton from Cambridge in 1868, advertised 'Landscape & General Photography,' but it is clear from his advertisements that his main concern was the production of carte-de-visite portraits, which sold at "7s 6d per dozen".

Edward Fox junior was almost unique in the Brighton of the 1860s in describing himself as a " Landscape and Architectural Photographer." Nicola Cassinello, who for a short time had a studio at 9 Edward Street, Brighton, produced cartes that mainly featured buildings and views and John Harrington who was based at 27 St James Street, Brighton in 1868, was described as "the eminent Architectural Photographer" and was noted for his photographic views of churches and cathedrals, but their presence in Brighton was brief and never seriously challenged Edward Fox junior's position as the leading landscape and architectural photographer in Brighton in the 1860s and early 1870s.

Edward Fox junior: Artist in Photography

Edward Fox junior, as the son of a respected landscape painter, was likely to regard himself primarily as an artist, rather than an ordinary commercial photographer. In the 1861 Census, Edward Fox junior gave his profession as "Artist, Designer and Photographer." Fox's advertisements in the 1860s, 1870s and 1880s generally introduced the proprietor of 44 Market Street as ' Edward Fox - Artist ,' rather than the commonplace ' photographer '.

By styling himself as a "Landscape Photographer," Fox distanced himself from the businessmen who had opened photographic studios to cater for the popular demand for photographic portraits. Edward Fox, it seems, did not views the practice of photography as simply a commercial activity.


Fishing Boats on Brighton Beach by Edward Fox [COURTESY OF STEVEN EVANS]


Edward Fox junior was among the few Brighton photographers who looked upon photography as an art form, regularly submitting his work to be displayed in London art galleries. Edward Fox made his living from private commissions to record a proud owner's horse, grand residence or recently acquired sculpture, but the work he displayed,for example, at the Photographic Society's annual exhibitions, reflect the concerns of a landscape artist. From the descriptions of the work shown by Fox at various exhibitions, it seems clear that they had artistic purpose and were not drawn from his stock of commercial commissions. In June 1866, for example, Fox exhibited "studies of trees in and out of leaf." Later advertisements and notices in the press refer to "Land & Sea Studies" "Forest Trees in Winter and Summer." and "Cloud & Sea Studies." By the late 1870s, Fox came to realize the commercial possibilities of his artistic photographs which featured trees, clouds, and sea and was offering these prints as "Studies for Artists."


Cloud and Sea Study. Attributed to Edward Fox [COURTESY OF STEVEN EVANS]

Edward Fox was affiliated to the Photographic Society of Great Britain and showed his work regularly at the annual exhibitions organised by the Photographic Society. Fox first displayed his landscapes at the Photographic Society's Exhibition on 10th January 1863. He went on to show photographs at most of the Society's exhibitions held in London over the next twenty years. The last Photographic Society show he took part in was the 29th Annual Exhibition held at the Society's gallery in Pall Mall, London in the Autumn of 1884.

Fishermen on Brighton Beach by Edward Fox (1871)


Private Life and Public Records 1875-1891

Edward Fox junior's mother died some time before 1871. When the 1871 Census was taken on 2nd April 1871, Edward Fox senior was recorded as an "Artist Painter", a widower aged 82, living at 44 Market Street with his eldest son Edward, a 48 year old bachelor. In 1875, Edward Fox senior, a landscape artist who had recorded Brighton's streets, buildings and sea-front for a period of sixty years, passed away. However, a notice in a Sussex newspaper indicates that Edward Fox was not living alone at 44 Market Street after his father's death. In 1875, an advertisement for Edward Fox's Landscape Photography in the "Hastings Independent" provides evidence that Fox's premises at 44 Market Street was being shared by a Miss Weekes, who modelled "wax flowers from Nature." No longer a confirmed bachelor, Edward Fox married Miss Sarah Ann Weekes at St Peter's Church Brighton on 27th October 1875. Sarah Weekes, who was born in Brighton in 1843, was twenty years younger than Edward Fox. When the next advertisement for Edward Fox's Landscape Photography appeared, a notice was attached to the bottom of the display, announcing "Wax Flowers from Nature, by Mrs Edward Fox (Miss Weekes) - specimens on view. Lessons given."


[ABOVE LEFT ]Advertisement for Edward Fox's Landscape Photography and Mrs Fox's Wax Flowers at 44 Market Street from Page's Brighton Directory of 1879. In 1875,Miss Sarah Weekes was advertising her "Wax Flowers from Nature" from Edward Fox's premises at 44 Market Street. Later, in October 1875, Miss Weekes became Mrs Edward Fox.




[ABOVE RIGHT]Edward Fox 's trade plate as it appears on the back of one of his carte de visite views.

It appears that no children were born of the union between Edward Fox and his wife Sarah. However, it seems Mr and Mrs Fox became the surrogate parents of three young men. By the time of the 1881 Census, Edward and Sarah Fox's house in Market Street was also the home of three brothers, Charles, Algernon and Herbert Attree. The Attree brothers were the sons of Charles Attree, an auctioneer of Clarence Square, Brighton. Charles Attree, who was the husband of Sarah Fox's sister Jane, had died before the birth of their youngest son Herbert Charles Attree, who was baptised on 18th March 1863. The two older Attree brothers both give their occupation as 'clerk' in the 1881 Census, but the teenage Herbert C. Attree is described as a photographer and was, presumably, acting as an assistant to Edward Fox.

By the 1870s, Edward Fox was well known for his views of Brighton landmarks and notable Sussex buildings. He had produced a series of photographs featuring the interiors and exteriors of Sussex Churches and a number had been issued in the carte-de-visite format. Private commissions had taken him across the county to record grand residences and country houses. Significantly, Edward Fox placed advertisements for his landscape photography in newspapers that were circulated in the outer reaches of the County.


Preston Circus, Brighton showing the buildings of Longhurst's Amber Ale Brewery by Edward Fox (1879).The dark building on the far left of the picture is the Stanford Arms Inn. The Duke of York Cinema and the Fire Station now occupy the site of the brewery.


Edward Fox may have considered himself an artist in photography, but he was gaining a reputation as a reliable recorder of monuments and buildings. Fox's advertisements in the 1870s offer evidence that his photographs were providing "Views for Architects, Engineers, and Arbitrators." It is therefore not surprising that when photographs were gathered together to form "The Photographic Record and Survey of Sussex", Edward Fox's photographs of Brighton and the surrounding Sussex countryside formed an important part of the collection.

In the late 1870s, Edward Fox was providing photographic prints of his views measuring up to 16 inches by 18 inches. In an advertisement which appeared in Page's Brighton Directory of 1885, Fox announced that his 'speciality' was "Landscape & Architectural Photographs taken direct on plates up to 16 inches to 18 inches."


North Street at the junction with West Street by Edward Fox (1875).This view and a number of other pictures by Edward Fox formed part of The Photographic Record and Survey of Sussex.The rounded building in the centre was demolished in 1925.


Edward Fox's last years as a Photographer

In June 1892, it was reported that Edward Fox had sold his photography studio at 44 Market Street. It had been Edward's home since the mid 1840s and he had been producing photographs from this address for over 50 years. By 1895, 44 Market Sreet was occupied by J.Slatter, ironmonger. In Page's Directory for 1895, a Mr Fox - 'artist', is recorded at 15 Havelock Road, Brighton. In Pike's 1896 Directory, Edward Fox of 15, Havelock Road is listed under Photographers in the Trades and Professions section. According to Pike's Directory, Edward Fox continued as a photographer at 15 Havelock Road for a few years, but in the 1899 edition, Fox disappears from the list of photographers working in Brighton. Kelly's Directory of 1899 lists Edward Fox as an artist living at 15 Havelock Road in the general directory, but he is not entered under photographers in the trade section. There is no trace of Edward Fox, or his wife Sarah, in the 1901 Census.


Fishing Boats by Edward Fox [COURTESY OF STEVEN EVANS]


Study of Sea Waves.Attributed to Edward Fox [COURTESY OF STEVEN EVANS]










Website last updated: 23 December, 2002


This website is dedicated to the memory of Arthur T. Gill (1915-1987), Sussex Photohistorian


Home Page, Directory of Photographic Studios, A-Z Index of Photographers, History of Photography in Brighton,
Dating Old Family Photographs, Victorian and Edwardian Brighton, Location of Brighton Studios, Glossary of Terms

Photographers' Biographies


Spartacus Educational Privacy Policy