The Small Guide to a Big Country: It’s the spirituality, however, that makes it truly special. The Rock itself is not a sacred site to the local Anangu people, but many parts of it are. A guided tour of the base is highly recommended and far more rewarding than a climb to the top, ‘just because it’s there’. You will discover its raw beauty, striking colours and learn of its special place in Aboriginal legend. If there's a bit of wind you may also discover a few smashed cameras, sunglasses and hats that have dropped from above!
Uluru has a special place in the Anangu's stories of creation (Tjukurpa), These stories are related by local guides and in displays at the Uluru-Kata Tjuta Cultural Centre, along with audiovisual presentations of the history of the park and how it is managed. The centre also operates Maruka Arts and Crafts, an Aboriginal co-operative displaying and selling the works of more than 800 traditional artists from Central and Western Australia.
Kata Tjuta means ‘many heads’ in the Anangu language and is a spectacular group of 36 massive red rock outcrops separated by narrow valleys about 50 kilometres from Uluru. The domes surround Mount Olga, which rises more than 1000 metres above the desert floor and was named after a Spanish Queen.
Many visitors find The Olgas even more inspiring than Ayers Rock. There are walks ranging from an hour to five hours through the gorges and around the outcrops, though restrictions apply when temperatures over 36 degrees C are forecast. The Valley of the Winds tour is arguably the best.
Australian Explorer: The only way to truly experience Uluru (Ayers Rock) is to visit it. No picture can show the magnificence of the size and colours of the rock (348 metres high). Like the Olgas, Uluru is set within the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, and the same pass that you use for the Olgas covers Ayers Rock.
Uluru holds deep Aboriginal significance to the Anangu people, and many stories are told as you wander around the base. You can also learn about Ayers Rock at the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park Cultural Centre. Anangu Tours is also based here, and can take you on numerous tours around the base, although they do request that you respect their culture and do not climb the rock.
There are different walks that you can take around the base of Uluru. The first would be the long 9.4km walk around the whole of the base. The walk is worth it, although as with all of the walks you should start early in the morning before the sun has got too hot.
Around the base you will see numerous Aboriginal paintings, along with descriptive boards explaining about the paintings. Some areas of the rock are sacred and are clearly marked, so the Anangu people request that you do not take pictures or enter these areas.
If you do decide to climb Ayers Rock, then make sure that you have comfortable footwear and take lots of water. You should also aim to be down by 9am during the summer months as it is too hot to climb any later than this. (The Climb is also closed at 8am if the temperature is due to reach 36 degrees).
The walk takes about 3 hours in total, with breathtaking views of the Olgas and surrounding area. Just remember to take your time and step carefully. Several people have dies from climbing the rock, mainly due to heart attacks although some by falling down the steep rock. A chain helps you on the steepest section, although this stops nearly half way to the top.
Northern Territory Travel: Uluru, or Ayers Rock, is one of Australia's most identifiable icons. The large sandstone rock formation lies in the Uluru Kata Tjuta National Park approximately 350 km southwest from Alice Springs.
The Uluru / Ayers Rock site is considered sacred to the local Aborigines and its colour changes spectacularly with the setting sun, gradually turning to a deeper shade of red before fading into grey and blending into the night. The reverse can be witnessed as dawn approaches.
Uluru accommodation is located primarily in the Ayers Rock Resort complex in the township of Yulara. The hotels here range from luxury five-star resorts through to self-contained apartments, hotels, budget rooms and camping grounds.
Be sure to check out the various Uluru / Ayers Rock accommodation websites for any current deals or promotions. In most cases, you should also be able to check on room availability and make bookings online at these websites.
The Uluru Kata Tjuta National Park is one of eleven places in Australia included on the United Nations World Heritage list and a trip here is almost mandatory for any visitor to Australia and the Northern Territory.
Kata Tjuta itself is a large and impressive collection of rock domes known as The Olgas located about 30 km west of Uluru / Ayers Rock. Although not as famous as the rock, many visitors find them equally, if not more, breathtaking.
Travel NT: The Uluru-Kata Tjuta region is rich in indigenous culture and many options exist for travellers who want to learn about the area from an Aboriginal perspective - whether by visiting Uluru-Kata Tjuta Cultural Centre, buying local art or joining a tour with a local Aboriginal guide.
The Anangu people are the custodians of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. They have a complex system of beliefs known as 'Tjukurpa' (pronounced 'chu-ka-pa') and for which there is no direct English translation that encompasses religion, law and the relationship between people, plants, animals and the landscape.
Anangu guides lead walking tours around the base of Uluru/Ayers Rock sharing stories, bush food and discussing the symbolism of various rock art. An indigenous guide is accompanied by an interpreter and these walks provide a rare insight into how the Anangu have lived, and continue to live, in this arid environment.
Make sure you begin any exploration of Uluru and Kata Tjuta at the Park's Cultural Centre, located about a kilometre from the Rock itself, where an informative introduction to Tjukurpa and other points of interest are covered in educational displays. The Cultural Centre also hosts art and craft demonstrations, bush tucker sessions, walks and cultural presentations.
Indigenous art produced in the region is distinctive, though styles and mediums vary. Carved woodwork and dot paintings are popular souvenirs, but there is an opportunity to invest in some original and truly unique pieces at galleries in the Cultural Centre and Ayers Rock Resort.
Kata Tjuta National Park: We, the traditional land owners of Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park, are direct descendants of the beings who created our lands during the Tjukurpa (Creation Time). We have always been here. It is our duty to look after the land, which includes passing on its history to our children and grandchildren. We call ourselves Anangu, and would like you to use that term for us. Some of us speak Yankunytjatjara and others speak Pitjantjatjara as first languages. We teach our language to our children.
Our land is a unique and beautiful place. This is recognised by its listing as a World Heritage Area for both its cultural and natural values. We would like all people with an interest in this place to learn about the land from those who have its knowledge. Please respect this knowledge and open your minds and hearts to our enduring culture.
You are welcome to visit Uluru to be inspired by the natural beauty, to enjoy it. We are greatly concerned about your safety while on our land, because we want you to return to your families to share the knowledge about our culture that you have gained.
Wikipedia: In October 1872 the explorer Ernest Giles was the first non-indigenous person to sight the rock formation. He saw it from a considerable distance, and was prevented by Lake Amadeus from approaching closer. He described it as "the remarkable pebble". On 19 July 1873, the surveyor William Gosse visited the rock and named it Ayers Rock in honour of the then Chief Secretary of South Australia, Sir Henry Ayers. Since then, both names have been used, although Ayers Rock was the most common name for many years, and remains the most familiar name to non-Australians.
In 1993, a dual naming policy was adopted that allowed official names that consist of both the traditional Aboriginal name and the English name. On 15 December 1993, Uluru was renamed Ayers Rock / Uluru and became the first officially dual named feature in the Northern Territory. The order of the dual names was officially reversed to Uluru / Ayers Rock on 6 November 2002 following a request from the Regional Tourism Association in Alice Springs.
Uluru is more than 318 m (986 ft) high, 8 km (5 miles) around with a hard exterior compared to most other large rock formations which has prevented formation of scree slopes, resulting in the unusual steep faces down to ground level.
Uluru is often referred to as a monolith, and for many years it was even listed in record books as the world's largest monolith. However that description is inaccurate, as it is part of a much larger underground rock formation which includes Kata Tjuta (also known as The Olgas) and Mount Connor. The world's largest monolith is Mt Augustus in Western Australia, which is more than 2.5 times the size of Uluru - it stands 858 meters above the surrounding plain, 1105 meters above sea level and covers 47.95 km².
Uluru is notable for appearing to change colour as the different light strikes it at different times of the day and year, with sunset a particularly remarkable sight. The rock is made of sandstone infused with minerals like feldspar (Arkosic sandstone) that reflect the red light of sunrise and sunset, making it appear to glow. The rock gets its rust colour from oxidation. Rainfall is uncommon in the area around Uluru, but during wet periods, the rock acquires a silvery-gray color, with streaks of black algae on the areas serving as channels for water flow.
Kata Tjuta, also called Mount Olga or The Olgas, literally meaning 'many heads' owing to its peculiar formation, is another rock formation about 25 km from Uluru. Special viewing areas with road access and parking have been constructed to give tourists the best views of both sites at dawn and dusk.
On 26 October 1985, the Australian Government returned ownership of Uluru to the local Pitjantjatjara Aborigines, with one of the conditions being that the Anangu would lease it back to the National Parks and Wildlife for 99 years and that it would be jointly managed.
The Aboriginal community of Mutitjulu (pop. approx. 300) is near the western end of Uluru. From Uluru it is 17 km by road to the tourist town of Yulara (pop. 3,000), which is situated just outside of the National Park.
Holiday Company Descriptions
Travelsphere: Transfer to the airport for the flight to Ayers Rock, situated in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Upon arrival transfer to your nearby hotel for a two night stay. During the afternoon an excursion will be made to the mysterious Olgas, a nearby range of 28 spectacular rock domes.
Ayers Rock is one of the world’s most remarkable sights. This gigantic sandstone monolith is also a cherished Aboriginal shrine, and remains the property of the Anangu tribe of the Northern Territory. This evening we are at Ayers Rock for sunset.
Visit Ayers Rock for sunrise, and a chance for the more energetic to climb to the top! There will also be a tour of the base to see the caves and Aboriginal rock paintings.
The rest of the day is free to enjoy a wide range of optional activities. Join a walking tour to learn about the traditions and skills of the Aborigines or take a trip out to the desert to enjoy a spectacular Night Sky Show and discover the secrets of the stars.
Journeys of Distinction: Before landing at Ayers Rock we have a chance to view the world's largest monolith from our aircraft. After checking-in at our hotel we will leave mid-afternoon for a tour of the nearby Olgas, a series of dramatic red domes sculpted by the elements. Later, witness ever-changing colours and moods as the sun sets over Ayers Rock.
This morning we depart for a Rock base tour, where our guide will tell us the legend of Uluru. This afternoon is free to spend by the pool. No trip to Australia is complete without experiencing the Sounds of Silence dinner: This evening, weather permitting, dine under a million stars at the award winning al fresco restaurant. Travel out to a setting in the middle of the desert, and sip on a glass of champagne with the sound of a lone didgeridoo filling the air as the sun slowly sets over Ayers Rock. Dine on a gourmet feast of Australian delicacies, then sit back and take in the mystery of the desert at night as an astronomer takes you on a tour of the Southern night skies. After a truly memorable evening we return to our hotel.
Freedom Australia: Depart early for Ayers Rock Resort, stopping at a camel farm where you can try your hand riding ‘a ship of the desert’ (own expense). This afternoon is at leisure to enjoy the facilities at Ayers Rock Resort. Enjoy a glass of wine this evening while watching sunset over Uluru (Ayers Rock) from the special viewing area known as the ‘sunset strip’. The subtle colour changes are truly amazing. Accommodation: Sails in the Desert Hotel, Ayers Rock Resort, 2 nights.
Rise early to view Uluru at sunrise. There is the opportunity to climb to the summit (optional). Tour the caves at the base of Uluru and hear stories of the Aboriginal Dreamtime. Later, visit the Uluru-Kata Tjuta Cultural Centre. This afternoon travel through the desert plains to Kata Tjuta (Olgas). The size and grandeur of these 36 massive domes of conglomerate red rock will amaze you. Take a walk through Walpa Gorge following the natural creek bed between two of the domes. After sunset with sparkling wine, enjoy a delicious Australian barbecue dinner and stargazing.
Viator: On this small group tour you will enjoy sunrise, a restaurant breakfast overlooking Uluru and the Liru Walk with Aboriginal guides. On the famous Liru Walk you will retrace the path of the Liru Ancestors through bushland near Uluru. Hear the tragic fate of Lungkata (Blue Tongue Lizard Man), who is still lying at the base of Uluru. See demonstrations of ancient bush skills such as making kiti (bush glue), making fire without matches and carving wooden tools with only a sharpened stone. You'll also learn to hold and throw a spear.
The restaurant breakfast overlooking Uluru is provided in the upstairs restaurant of the Uluru Cultural Centre. The setting is very serene, with a dramatic view of Uluru. Breakfast includes hot filled croissants, Danish pastries, toast and condiments, muesli, selection of cereals, fresh fruit salad, fruit juice, fresh coffee and selection of teas.
All tours are led by local Aboriginal people. They share their culture, explaining how they see the landscape of Uluru, and their “Tjukurpa” or Dreamtime. These Aboriginal Guides provide much more than just a tour: they provide a unique cultural experience that constantly surpasses the expectation of their guests. Anangu have a special philosophy about sharing, They say “Ngapartji Ngapartji”: “this is our culture, we share it with you, it benefits us all”.
Tourist Australia: It’s an early start for one of the highlights of the tour; the Uluru sunrise. Enjoy a walk around the base exploring the mysterious rock formations and Aboriginal art sites or choose to climb Uluru. We visit the Cultural Centre and enjoy lunch before heading to Kings Canyon for our overnight camp. http://kuoni.co.uk/countryinformation/maps/australasia.shtml
Climb and explore spectacular Kings Canyon, view the ;Amphitheatre;The Lost City & the picturesque Garden of Eden; and the breathtaking North and South Walls. After lunch, we return to Alice Springs viewing the rugged desert scenery along the way.
Central Oz Motorcycle Tours: Established in 1992, The award winning Alice Springs 'Central Oz Motorcycle Adventures' provide self-ride & passenger tours on Harley-Davidson motorcycles. We tour Alice Springs & the rest of the Outback Northern Territory. Tours range from 1 hour to 7 days including Ayers Rock/Uluru, MacDonnell Ranges & extended tours to Darwin. We provide what the motorcycling enthusiast is looking for.
From Alice Springs, we cruise out along beautiful winding and undulating roads to visit picturesque water filled Gorges (swimming in warmer months) and other stunning natural Outback landforms such as Ayers Rock. Our tours are conducted at a leisurely pace, in keeping with the relaxed Northern Territory lifestyle, so that you have a chance to absorb the various beautiful locations.
Total Travel: Uluru’s ancient neighbour, Mt Olga/Kata Tjuta, 50 km to the west, is a spectacular collection of 36 weathered red domes with steep sides, separated by narrow valleys between and covering about 35 sq km.
Kata Tjuta’s highest feature is Mt Olga which rises 546m from the desert floor and 1072 metres above sea level. In the language of the local Anangu people, Kata Tjuta means ‘many heads’. Kata Tjuta might be less famous than Uluru but park visitors are always captivated by its beauty and many people believe it holds even greater charm than its neighbour to the east.
AAT Kings: Travel to the sunrise viewing area at the eastern end of Uluru and watch the first sunlight of the day creep across the desert plains. Enjoy a warming cup of tea or coffee as the morning sun slowly changes the colour of Uluru. In summer, watching sunrise at Uluru in the cool morning air is the perfect start to the day. In winter months, we recommend a jacket as the desert air can be very cold. Y8: Begin with a leisurely drive around the base of Uluru. Your AAT Kings Driver/Guide will point out a number of interesting features of the monolith, and take you on a walking tour of Mutitjulu Waterhole where you can view Aboriginal rock art. There is time to visit the Uluru-Kata Tjuta Cultural Centre, where you can learn about the culture and Tjukurpa (Aboriginal law) of the Anangu people.
Australia 4 Tours: Kata Tjuta & Uluru We set out to explore the wonder of Kata Tjuta (the Olgas) and hike the 'Valley of the Winds'. We head to Uluru (Ayers Rock) to watch the beautiful colours of the desert sun set while enjoying champagne. After a hearty dinner at our permanent campsite, take the opportunity to view the brilliance of the outback sky before retiring for the night. Day 2 - Uluru An early start is required for one of the highlights of the tour - the Uluru sunrise. You can enjoy a walk around the base exploring its mysterious rock formations and Aboriginal art sites while watching the changing light on the desert or choose to climb Uluru. A visit to the Cultural Centre.
Adventures Abroad: Early this morning we fly across the vast desert known as the "Red Centre" to Uluru, commonly called Ayers Rock, located in the centre of the continent. Uluru is an incredibly impressive monolith 5 km (3 miles) in length and over 300 m (1,000 ft) high! Towering 343 m (1,143 ft) above the plain and measuring 9 km (5Aœ miles) in circumference, the rock is twice the size of central London! The rock is honeycombed with caves, some of which are used for tribal ceremonies and burial chambers. We enjoy the sunset which creates a series of changing colours on the rock.
Uluru is a remnant of ancient mountains which long ago weathered away, leaving the sandstone monolith standing alone in the desert. In 1989 scientists found evidence that Uluru, the Macdonnell Ranges, and a cluster of huge rock domes named Kata Tjuta (the Olgas) were part of a single plateau. The plateau was formed about 300 million years ago and has steadily been eroded ever since. At one stage during this erosion process, according to the scientists, there would probably have been vast gorges here of Grand Canyon dimensions.
Later today we will travel to Kata Tjuta (the Olgas) where we will have time for a short hike. We will then journey to Uluru for a short walk at the base before travelling to the sunset viewing area.
Anangu: This tour begins with sunrise, a short tour at the base of Uluru, and a restaurant breakfast with a panoramic view of Uluru from the magnificent Uluru Cultural Centre restaurant. Guests then join their Aboriginal guide for the famous Liru Walk. The walk retraces the path of the Liru Ancestors through the bushland to Uluru. Guests see the scars left on the rock during their battle with Kuniya thousands of years ago, and learn to hold and throw a spear. They hear the tragic fate of Lungkata (Blue Tongue Lizard Man), whose body we see laying at the base of Uluru. See demonstrations of ancient bush skills such as making kiti (bush glue), try making fire without matches and carving wooden tools with only a sharpened stone. Breakfast includes hot croissants, Danish pastries, fresh fruit salad, yoghurt, cereals, toast, juice, tea and coffee.
Wayoutback: On our 5 day 4WD Safari we are the only company getting right off the beaten track, cutting through two huge cattle stations on our way from Uluru (Ayers Rock) to Watarrka (Kings Canyon). We 4-wheel drive from Curtin Springs Station through breathtaking scenery that very few people have laid eyes on, emerging at Kings Creek Station about 30km from Watarrka.
Desert Explorer: As remote as you can get in Australia. This journey takes you to the heart of outback Australia. From the vast golden what plains and mines to the red centre, Ayers Rock, Kings Canyon & Alice Springs. See places most tourists have never heard of. One of the last adventures in Australia.
Intrepid: Leaving Alice early, head to nature's icon of Australia, Uluru - pausing en route for an optional camel ride! Explore the base of this magnificent monolith and visit the cultural centre to learn about the Tjukurpa (Aboriginal law). Climbing the rock is an option, before our day ends with a memorable desert sunset over Uluru.
Thomas Cook: Visit a Camel Farm this morning before heading for the red rock domes of the Olgas, or ‘Kata Tjuta’. This evening relax at the Ayers Rock sunset viewing area to watch the world’s largest monolith change colour in spectacular style. Retire to the 4 diamond Desert Gardens Hotel, part of the self-contained Ayers Rock Resort, for your two-night stay.
Watch the sun rise over Ayers Rock this morning before a tour around the base to explore ancient caves adorned in Aboriginal art. Find out more at the cultural centre. Your afternoon is at leisure.
Ayers Rock Tours: Depart your hotel early this morning for your tour to Uluru National Park. Arrive at Uluru (Ayers Rock) just as the first rays of the sun cast light upon the desert soil. Begin your climb of Uluru, enjoying unhindered views of the vast desert plains across to Kata Tjuta (Olgas).
Join the guided Mala Walk and hear the story of the Mala (Hare Wallaby) people who lived at Uluru. View caves and ancient rock art as you learn about the geology and flora of the region and the traditions of the areas original inhabitants. As you tour the base of Uluru, visit Kantju Gorge, a sacred waterhole and old hunting ground, see Tapudji (Little Ayers Rock) and many of the geographic features linked to Anangu mythology.
Visit the Cultural Centre, dedicated to interpreting Anangu culture and law and stop by Maruku Arts and Craft Cooperative to see Aboriginal artists at work. Your coach will return you to the Ayers Rock Resort after your morning of touring.
Desert Gardens Hotel Ayers Rock: Magnificent ghost gums and flowering native shrubs are the setting for this lovely hotel. Desert Gardens Hotel is centrally located to all resort and touring facilities and offers a range of stylish accommodation, from shaded poolside rooms to the magnificent deluxe rooms overlooking the desert. You can relax in the comfort of your own private balcony or courtyard, or unwind in the hotel's refreshing pool, sipping on cocktails from the Bunya bar. And it's only a short stroll to Desert Gardens' numerous lookouts, where you can view what is said to be Australia's best sunset, with the spectacular play of colours across the face of Uluru and the surrounding desert .
Sails in the Desert Hotel: Named after the soaring white sails that crown its roof, this is Ayers Rock Resort's premier hotel. Exquisitely furnished and designed, the interior decor focuses on Aboriginal heritage and culture, with a gallery in the lobby and significant artworks featured throughout the public areas and in the private rooms. Slip into comfort and luxury right in the heart of the Central Australian Outback at Sails in the Desert Hotel. Relax in spacious, airy, beautifully appointed rooms, enjoy a cocktail in the lovely grounds, or sit back and relax under the magnificent white sails. The Hotel also features the acclaimed Mulgara Gallery, the lively, brasserie-style Winkiku Restaurant, relaxed cuisine by the pool at Rockpool, and the signature restaurant of Ayers Rock Resort, Kuniya Restaurant. Sails in the Desert Hotel has recently won a Brolga Award for "Luxury Accommodation".
Emu Walk Apartments: Sheltered behind gardens of native trees and forming a walkway through the heart of the Resort is an avenue of terraced apartments. Light and spacious, well equipped and fully serviced, the Emu Walk Apartments can cater for up to six people - ideal if you are holidaying with family or friends. All apartments are fully self-contained, with separate kitchen, living and bedroom areas. Located just minutes from the Resort Shopping Centre (including mini supermarket) and the shops, these apartments provide all the kitchen equipment you'll need. And if you're not in the mood for cooking, you're in close proximity to any of the Resort restaurants, including Gecko's, the Mediterranean-style cafe in the shopping centre.
Longitude 131 Lodge Ayers Rock: Luxurious, eco-sensitive and romantic, Longitude 131° offers immersion in the wilderness of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, complete with 5 star luxury and private views of the sun rising and setting over Uluru (Ayers Rock). In the crisp, white linen of a king-sized bed you find the serene, silent sleep of the desert. Above the sweeping canopy of your palatial tent floats a greater canopy, endless and sparkling. Constellations brimming with Anangu, (local Aboriginal people), tales and stories. You dream the rich dreams found only in the heart of sacred, powerful places. As one of only 30 guests, you awake to your own private view of the sun rising over Uluru (Ayers Rock). Reflecting countless colours, Uluru drenches you with its fabled light. The walls of your tent are a visual narrative, telling of the discoveries made by an early outback pioneer. This award-winning luxury wilderness camp in Australia's Red Centre has achieved new heights in ecotourism the world over. Longitude 131° is a deluxe camping experience like no other and set atop an isolated sand dune close to the border of the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. As far from anywhere else as you can be. As close as possible to serenity. Rejuvenation for the body. Stimulation for the mind. Liberation for the spirit.
Outback Pioneer Hotel and Lodge Ayers Rock: Ideal for families and budget travellers, the Outback Pioneer Hotel and Lodge Ayers Rock offers an authentic experience of Australia's pioneering past in relaxed and friendly surroundings. Situated in Ayers Rock, the Outback Pioneer Hotel and Lodge is a place where friendships are made and good times are had. Combined with a huge barbecue area and all the luxuries of the resort, this property is an ideal venue for families. Outback Pioneer Hotel and Lodge offers a choice of comfortable guest rooms and dormitories that gives the traveller a real taste of traditional Australian hospitality. Enjoy a beer and a great meal at the Outback BBQ, swap stories of your day's adventures or sing along with the nightly entertainment. Alternatively opt for the quiet atmosphere of the Bough House restaurant with traditional Australian dishes. There is also a swimming pool available onsite for you to enjoy.
The Lost Camel Ayers Rock: The Lost Camel hotel is located right next to the Ayers Rock resort's shopping centre and is a kilometre from the city centre. Furnished in a stylish mix of Aboriginal and urban themes, this hotel brings a new, exciting, contemporary element to the resort. This property features 99 contemporary, apartment-style studios that are furnished in vibrant colours, mixing urban chic with traditional Aboriginal artefacts. Studio rooms are located around a sparkling pool and garden courtyard. Specially adapted rooms for the physically challenged are also available. Guests can dine at the resort's restaurant that serves a wide range of delicacies and later relax with a fine drink at the bar situated onsite. During leisure, you can take a bracing dip in the swimming pool or soak up in the sun by the poolside.