Jose Ortega y Gasset was born in Madrid in 1883. He studied at Madrid University (1898-1904) and from 1911 was professor of philosophy at the institution.
Books by him included Meditations on Quixote (1914) and Modern Theme (1923). In 1926 he joined people such as Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, Sigmund Freud, Rainer Maria Rilke and Konrad Adenauer, as a member of the Pan-European Union.
His most famous work, Revolt of the Masses was published in 1932. Calling his philosophy ratiovitalism he argued that communism and fascism would cause the downfall of Western civilization. Toward a Philosophy of History appeared in 1941. In the book he explored the meaning of human history.
Jose Ortega y Gasset died in 1955.